Employee Performance Assessment in Government and Company Organizations

Employee Performance Assessment in Government and Company Organizations
Employee Performance Appraisal - In the running of a Management in a nonprofit organization or company, it certainly cannot be separated from the evaluation process. One function of evaluation that is very important to do is to conduct performance evaluations of organizational members or employees.
Employee performance appraisal activities have become common, especially in large companies. Procedures on performance of civil service, this program is implemented to evaluate the existing performance so that it can immediately take action if there are things that deviate from the performance evaluation. In addition, employee performance appraisals also encourage employees to increase the quantity and quality of their work for the company.
In certain companies that are very concerned about internal development, they have even prepared a separate employee performance evaluation form in the evaluation process. Various methods are also used by the company so that effective performance appraisals are carried out and do not appear judging. The management must also be observant in seeing the benefits of employee performance appraisal in order to realize that effectiveness. Therefore there needs to be a separate discussion regarding employee performance appraisal activities.
In this article, we will discuss in detail the definition of performance appraisal, goals, benefits, criteria, processes, and methods for evaluating employee performance along with examples. It is expected that after knowing and understanding the following explanation will be a reference for the application of performance appraisal in an organization or company or be a reference for writing scientific papers such as journals or performance appraisal papers.

Elements in Employee Performance Evaluation
Definition of Performance Appraisal
The Purpose of Employee Performance Evaluation in General
Benefits of Employee Performance Assessment
Employee Performance Evaluation Process
Job Analysis
Performance standard
Performance Rating System
Elements in Employee Performance Evaluation
There are two aspects that must be discussed in the Employee Performance Assessment, namely the employee's own performance and feedback aimed at employee development. The employee performance appraisal process starts from determining the goals / targets of the performance accompanied by observations. Then during and after the work is carried out an evaluation is followed by a promotion based on the evaluation results in the form of incentives or an increase in position.

In addition to these general aspects and processes there are elements inherent in evaluating employee performance that need to be known. These elements include:
Employee performance appraisals must be measured and compared in accordance with established targets and standards.
Rewards for employees who contribute more.
Analyze and Identify employees' needs for development training both now and in the future.
Determination of targets and standards for the future.

In general, the element of performance appraisal does not only apply to employees. Another example of performance evaluation is the assessment of teacher performance in educational institutions to improve the quality of teachers. So that these elements in a broad sense can be applied to any institution other than non-profit companies or government organizations.

Definition of Performance Appraisal
Before discussing too much about employee performance appraisal we should know the definition of performance appraisal itself. Performance appraisal has various definitions that have been put forward by experts. The following is the definition of performance appraisal presented by experts:

Mathis and Jackson. Performance appraisal is the process of evaluating employees in performing work that is compared with standards followed by giving that information to employees. Performance appraisal is often referred to as giving ratings to employees through reviewing, evaluating, and evaluating work results.

Hasibuan stated that performance appraisal is an activity for managers to evaluate the employee's performance behavior, followed by determining future policies. Matters relating to performance appraisals such as the assessment of loyalty, honesty, leadership, teamwork, dedication and participation.
Mondy and Noe. The definition of performance appraisal is a formal review and evaluation process of employee performance and team performance.
Handoko. Performance appraisal is a way to measure all contributions to every employee in the organization. The most important value in this performance appraisal is related to the determination of the level of employee contributions to the performance carried out at the completion of tasks that are the employee's responsibility.

Dessler explained that the performance appraisal is an evaluation of the relative performance of employees at the present time and has been done that is adjusted to the achievement standards.
In general it can be concluded that the notion of performance is an assessment of the work of individuals / employees produced compared with existing standards both quality and quantity predetermined. Employee performance appraisal should be applied to determine the quality of employee performance and to motivate employees to be more productive. This employee performance appraisal is also able to benefit the organization / company in determining future decisions.

Plants used as traditional medicine are neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves

Plants used as traditional medicine are neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves
Plants are a factor that is always being questioned by humans because it is closely related to life. For this reason, serious observations of various types of plants are needed, both in terms of their use, properties, chemical content and plant uses. Antimicrobial activities of Azadirachta indica, these plants have functions or uses that are very useful for humans so that it encourages experts to examine the content and how to extract and isolate active compounds.
One of the plants used as traditional medicine is the neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) leaf of the Meliaceae tribe which according to experts is a native plant of India, used to clean teeth, treat skin diseases. Empirically it is widely used for antimalarial drugs, skin antiseptics, and potential for preventing cancer whereas according to the literature it is used as an antimalarial, antipyretic, ulcer and seed berafaat useful as an insecticide, fungicide and, antibacterial (Sukarsono, 2003). Research on antibacterial activity on neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) has been done before, including chloroform fraction of neem leaf using solid diffusion method known to have anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi (Pramularsih, 2001). Neem bark and leaf extracts have been tested against 105 bacterial strains of seven genera, namely Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Mycobacterium (Fabry et al., 1998). This is what underlies the need for research on the effect of extraction methods on the antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica Juss).

One of the plants used as traditional medicine is the neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) leaf of the Meliaceae tribe which according to experts is a native plant of India, used to clean teeth, treat skin diseases. Empirically it is widely used for antimalarial drugs, skin antiseptics, and potential for preventing cancer whereas according to the literature it is used as an antimalarial, antipyretic, ulcer and seed berafaat useful as an insecticide, fungicide and, antibacterial (Sukarsono, 2003). Research on antibacterial activity on neem (Azadirachta indica Juss) has been done before, including chloroform fraction of neem leaf using solid diffusion method known to have anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi (Pramularsih, 2001).
Neem bark and leaf extracts have been tested against 105 bacterial strains of seven genera, namely Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Mycobacterium (Fabry et al., 1998). This is what underlies the need for research on the effect of extraction methods on the antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts of neem leaves (Azadirachta indica Juss). RESEARCH METHODS A. Tools and materials used 1. Tools used A set of soxhlet, reflux, maceration vessels, petri dishes (Iwaki ® Pyrex), Erlenmeyer glasses (Iwaki Pyrex®), rounded ose, autoclave (Smic model YX280 B®) , ovens (Memmert®), analytical scales (AND), Enkas, incubators (Memmert®), refrigerators, micropipets (Huawei) disc blanc, ratovapor, and spoit (One Med®). 2. Ingredients used Agar, distilled water, benzene, pure culture (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella thypi, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Vibrio sp and Candida albicans), Nutrient medium (NA) Glucose Nutrient Broth medium (GNB), Glucose Nutrient Agar (GNA) methanol, Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), cotton, 0.9% NaCl physiological solution, and neem leaf samples (Azadirachta indica Juss).

B. Working procedures 1. Simplisia Preparation for neem leaves taken from the Al-Islam Headquarters mosque in Makassar City. Sampling is done manually by picking starting from the fifth leaf from the shoot. Leaves taken are healthy leaves, green and not moldy. 2. Sample processing The neem leaves (Azadirachta indica Juss) which have been picked are cleaned by washing with clean water, then separated all the impurities that are attached. Then dried by aerating in a place that is not exposed to direct sunlight. After drying the leaves are pulverized and the sample is ready to be extracted. 3. Making extracts a. Maceration Method A total of 100g of neem leaf (Azadirachta indica Juss) leaf powder sample was added to the maceration vessel and added with methanol until all the sample material was submerged. Left for 3 days in a sun-protected place while occasionally stirring, then the filtrate is filtered and the pulp is re-macerated 2 times with new treatment. The filtrate obtained was fastened with a retavapor, the extract obtained was then aerated until a thick extract was obtained. b. Soxletation Method A total of 100g of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica Juss) leaf powder was put into filtered papercloths (the height of the sample in the clamp should not be from chiffon pipes). Then the round bottom flask is filled with liquid (methanol) then placed in a water bath and clamped firmly then the cladding filled with the sample is installed in the round bottom flask reinforced with clamps and the liquid (methanol) is added for wetting and clamping the stative with strong. Water flow and heating run until the extraction process of the active substance is complete (21 times circulation).

The filtrate obtained was bonded with a rotary evaporator, the extract obtained was then aerated to obtain a thick extract. c. Reflux Method A total of 100g of neem leaf sample powder (Azadirachta indica Juss) is inserted into a round bottom flask filled with liquid methanol until the simplicia powder is submerged about 2 cm above the surface of the simplicia, or 2/3 the volume of the flask then the round bottom flask is firmly placed on the stative and placed above the water bath, then put the condenser on a round bottom flask reinforced in clamps and statives. Water flow and heating run according to the temperature of the solvent used. After 4 hours of filtering, the filtrate was collected in a container and the pulp was added with methanol and worked as before. Extraction is carried out for 3-4 hours. The filtrate obtained is concentrated with a rotary evaporator. 4. Medium Setup a. Sterilization Tools Tools used are washed with detergent, rinsed with water until clean, dried in a reverse position in the open air after it is dried wrapped in parchment paper. The glassware is sterilized using an oven at a temperature of 180⁰ C for 2 hours. Ose and tweezers are sterilized by spreading on spritus fire, while tools made of rubber and plastic that cannot stand heating are sterilized in an atoclave at 121 ° C for 15 minutes. b. Preparation of medium 1) Medium NA (Nutrient Agar) Meat extract 3.0 g Pepton 5.0 g Agar 15.0 g Distilled water up to 1000 ml Preparation: All ingredients put in a glass erlenmeyer dissolved with distilled water up to 1000 ml, heated to dissolve, then sterilized in an atoclave at 1210C for 15 minutes. 2) Glucose Nutrient Agar Medium (GNA) Glucose 10 grams Beef extract 3.0 grams Pepton 5.0 grams Agar 15.0 grams Distilled water up to 1000 ml Preparation: All ingredients put in a glass erlenmeyer dissolved in distilled water up to 1000 ml, heated until dissolved, then sterilized in an autoclave at 1210C for 15 minutes (Djide, 2008).

3) Glucose Nutrient Broth Medium (GNB) distilled up to 1000 ml Beef extract 3.0 grams Glucose 10.0 grams Pepton 5.0 grams Water Manufacture: All ingredients are put into the glass erlenmeyer dissolved in distilled water up to 1000 ml, heated until dissolved then sterilized in an autoclave at 1210C for 15 minutes (Djide, 2008). 5. Preparation of Test Bacteria Test bacteria in the form of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella thypi, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Vibrio sp and Candida albicans from pure culture, each taken in one of the germicidal ointments and one of the Globus in Broth. GNB) was then incubated at 37 ° C for 24 hours. The fungus used in this study was Candida albicans taken one ose and then inoculated at room temperature for 3 x 24 hours. 6. Preparation of Bacterial Suspension Test 24-hour-old bacterial culture that has been rejuvenated in a sloping GNB medium suspended with physiological NaCl (0.9% NaCl) and then measured 25% T turbidity on a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 580 nm. As for the fungal test microbes were made suspensions in the same way but with transmittance measurements at 75% T. 7. Screening for Antibacterial Activity At the screening stage of activity, as much as 10 mg of methanol extract, was dissolved in 0.2 ml DMSO by using a micropipette, then mixed with 9.8 ml of NA medium that has been thawed at a concentration of 1 mg / ml to a final volume of 10 ml, the mixture is poured into a petri dish and shaken to make it even and allowed to condense. The diluted microbiology culture test was flattened using the stroke method (Streak plate method), then the petri dish was incubated at 370C for 1 x 24 hours. 8. Extract Testing a. Minimum Inhibitory Test (MIC) of NAM Medium was poured aseptically into each test tube as much as 5 ml, then sterilized. The concentration of the sample is 0.025%; 0.5

Project Management: Time and Costs

Project Management: Time and Costs
Probability of project completion time
PERT can be used to estimate the probability of completion of a project for a certain desired time. In this case a time overrun and completion cost of construction projects, statistical approach is needed to measure both the mean (mean, μ) and standard deviation (σ) of the project completion time. In using probabilistic PERT, it uses the assumption that an activity is statistically independent and the project completion time is normally distributed.
The average project completion is the amount of time from critical activities, while the critical path variant of the project is the number of critical activity variants.

Trade off between time and costs
Estimated time to complete a project is usually based on the level of use of certain resources. Often the time to complete a project can be shortened by adding resources. In many cases, the acceleration of project time aims to obtain a minimum total cost.
The general procedures used in the time and cost trade-off analysis are as follows:
1) Set the existing track.
2) Sort activities on the critical path starting with the least time acceleration costs, and calculate the time available for acceleration.
3) Accelerate 1 day (or other unit of time) each time, until the length of the critical trajectory is the same as the length of one (or several) other trajectories.
4) Accelerate the second (or several) tracks which are now critical tracks simultaneously, starting with the smallest acceleration costs until the existing activities cannot be accelerated or the acceleration costs are no longer feasible.

1. Definition of Project Management
Project Management describes a commitment of resources to carry out an important activity in a relatively short period of time where after completion management will be dissolved. One of the most popular uses of the network is for project analysis. The analyzed projects for example: construction of a building, manufacturing of medicines, or installation of a computer system that can be described as a network.
The network techniques used for project analysis are the CPM (Critical Path Method) / critical path method and PERT (Poject Evaluation and Review Technique) / Project Evaluation and Assessment Techniques.

2. Project Management Elements
Three main elements of project management, namely:
a. Project Team Members - consist of individuals from various departments within the organization or consultants outside the organization based on their special abilities, expertise and experience related to project activities.
b. Project Planning - employment statement is a written description format of the project's objectives, work and deadline for implementation. Elements of the project planning process: project objectives, identifying activities, establishing relationships ahead of time, estimating time, determining project completion times, comparing objectives with project schedules, determining resources to achieve project goals
c. Project Control - ensuring that all activities have been identified and covered and ensuring that activities are carried out in the proper order.

3. Project Network
a. Gantt Chart - traditional management techniques for scheduling and planning small projects with relatively few activities and relationships precede.
A Gantt Chart is a chart with lines representing the time for each activity on the project being analyzed. Figure 1 shows the Gannt Chart for building a simple house with seven activities
A CPM network also consists of branches and nodes that describe activities or a project and nodes represent the beginning and end of an activity. The network for building a house is shown in figure 2:
This network consists of three activities, the circle reflects the events. The purpose of building a network is to help plan and schedule a project. Network to build a house which activities are included in the construction of a house and the sequence of implementation of these activities. However scheduling requires time in connection with these activities. Estimated time for the duration of activities in the construction of a home network is shown in Figure 3:
c. Concurrent activity
Examples of housing construction often include several activities that occur at the same time as shown in Figure 4:
d. Critical Path
In a simpler (before expanded) home construction network, there is a single path with a 9 month duration. However, the expanded network shown in Figure 4 has four paths, identified in Table 1:

Nature and Scope of Procurement of Public or Organization Goods and Services

Nature and Scope of Procurement of Public or Organization Goods and Services
The sentence above shows the definition of procurement of government goods and services, namely the acquisition of goods, services, and public works in certain ways and times that produce the best value for the government and society. Sustainable procurement practices on organization performance, The main proportion of public expenditure at each level of public sector organizations is the procurement of goods and services and construction activities. Weak management of procurement of goods and services will have an impact on the quality of project implementation and the functions of the public sector concerned. In addition, the impact can also be in the form of delayed activities or disbursement of funds so that the benefits of the program expected by the community are also delayed. Historically, the role of public services in procuring goods and services is intended to serve the community or organization. This was noted in the 19th century in the world by Samuel (2011).

In public sector organizations, which include procurement of public goods and services is the procurement of goods and services for all parts of public sector organizations. Procurement of goods and services in a broad sense covers the issues of the strategy of procurement of goods and services, storage, distribution, contract monitoring, and management of service providers. The procurement of goods and services is the flow of consumption and is presented as an intermediate input; while public works and construction (roads, bridges, buildings and others) represent the final tangible output. Thus, standards and specifications for tenders for construction procurement and the procurement of other goods and services are different. Whereas in the decentralized system, autonomy is implemented so that implementing officials are flexible in obtaining goods and services under programs funded by the procurement department, or as an entity that functions to bring the interests of the procurement department in the work unit.

In the procurement of goods and services, there are fundamental differences between the process of procurement of goods and services in the government and in private companies. Private companies do not emphasize formal bidding competition, documented procedures, and urge conflicts of interest related to government.
Mistakes or violations in the procurement of public goods and services can have a broad political impact, so that the media and the public are placed as subjects. Procurement of public goods and services is often used as a tool for public policy objectives, such as helping to develop the growth of small industries in the region, women's groups, or marginal groups (not getting development benefits).

Purpose of Procurement of Public Goods and Services
The economy
In the procurement of public and private goods and services, economic criteria refer to how to obtain goods and services with the lowest time and lowest price specifications.
Import Substitution
Procurement strategies for goods and services of public organizations can encourage the growth of local industries by giving choices to local suppliers, or limiting purchases to foreign companies. There are several choices that domestic companies have in dealing with international bidding competition traditionally recognized by donor organizations, such as the World Bank.

Development of Competition
Competition in the procurement of goods and services is defined as equal opportunity for suppliers who meet the classification to compete in achieving public contracts. Increasing competition in the procurement of public goods and services is the goal of public sector organizations supported by international organizations. In developing countries, competition is often limited by imperfect markets, such as entry barriers and information gaps for small and inexperienced suppliers.

Dimensions of Structuring
The main principles in good governance imply the principles and rules for the consistent procurement of goods and services, contractor qualifications, submission of bids, and contract management. Accountability and transparency are vital for the management of good goods and services procurement.

Protection of Community Interest
Whether or not accountability for service policy is separate from service delivery itself. Public sector organizations are responsible for ensuring that these services reach the community.

Environmental protection
The United Nations advocates maintaining environmental quality and reducing waste as part of the procurement of goods and services.

Transportation for All Human Needs

Transportation for All Human Needs
Transportation is the movement of people, goods and information from one place to another safely, comfortably, quickly, cheaply and in accordance with the environment to meet the needs of human life.

In this modern era, Non Motorized Intra City Transport there are many sophisticated means of transportation, such as motorcycles, cars, trains, airplanes, cruise ships, and so on. Humans are freed to choose the transportation they need. Consumers are also increasing from year to year, even more so in motor vehicles. It is true with transportation, all human needs in reaching their destination become faster. However, the increasing number of vehicles on the road has resulted in many transportation problems, such as long traffic jams, air pollution, noise pollution and various accidents that have killed many lives.

Especially on the highway, which is where many motorized vehicles pass by. Almost every day the streets are crowded with new motor vehicles, with the most vehicles, motorbikes and cars. With the sophistication offered by vehicle manufacturers attracting consumers to immediately have it. Like fuel efficient, reliable performance, there are magnetic ignition keys (motorcycles), availability of alarms (cars) and so on.

The problem that arises is the presence of various types of new vehicles on the road to make the streets full of vehicles that cause traffic jams at certain times such as commuting and returning from work, not even at those times. This problem is faced by developed countries and also by developing countries like in the World. Transportation problems encountered today have a worse quality level and a greater quantity than in previous years both accidents, congestion, air pollution and traffic violations.

Currently the vehicle has become a means of transportation that is very close to the daily life of the world community. Motorized vehicles are efficient, effective, and economical means of transportation, and are affordable by most Indonesians. However, the rapid development of the number of motorized vehicles in urban areas has led to a decrease in the quality of urban life such as a decline in the level of public health, poor urban air quality, increased traffic accident victims, increased mental stress due to congestion and reduced physical activity due to more people in vehicles. In addition, the fossil fuel used as vehicle fuel causes environmental damage and deterioration in public health, even when an issue that is often discussed by the global community is a global warning.

According to research experts, global warning has a close relationship with the use of transportation equipment that uses fossil fuels. In fact, transportation equipment is the most widely used tool in Indonesia. Various environmental impacts arising from the transportation activities have led to the emergence of a movement to develop a more environmentally friendly transportation system known as sustainable transportation.

Definition of environmentally friendly transportation (sustainable transportation).
Sustainable transportation is a concept developed as an antithesis to the failure of policies, practices, and performance of the transportation system developed over the past 50 years. The term sustainable transportation itself has evolved since the terminology of sustainable development in 987 (word commission on environment and development, united nation). Specifically sustainable transportation is defined as "efforts to meet the needs of the current generation of mobility in transportation without reducing the ability of future generations to meet in meeting their mobility needs".

Thus in general the concept of sustainable transportation is a movement that encourages the use of environmentally friendly technology in an effort to meet the needs of public transportation. In the context of urban planning, this concept is translated as an effort to increase facilities for cycling, pedestrians, communication facilities, as well as providing cheap and environmentally friendly mass public transportation such as electric trains and other public transportation that can reduce the use of private vehicles, especially in the region traffic jam.

Agroforestry - Definition, Benefits and Objectives

Agroforestry - Definition, Benefits and Objectives
Agroforestry is a solution to the problem of converting land from forests into agricultural land. Land conversion which results in environmental problems such as floods, drought, soil erosion, biodiversity scarcity / extinction, reduced soil fertility to environmental changes can be reduced by agroforestry systems and forest trees of agroforestry importance.

Definition of Agroforestry
Agroforestry is a system of forestry plant cultivation which is carried out together with agricultural / livestock crops. Forestry plants in question are tree crops, while agricultural crops are related to annual crops.
The definition of agroforestry can be explained more broadly, namely the incorporation of forestry cultivation systems, agriculture, fisheries, and animal husbandry.
The term agroforestry comes from the English absorption word, which is "agroforestry". Agro means agriculture, while forestry means forestry.
In the world, this system is often referred to as "agroforestry" which is a combination of the words "wana" and "peasant" which means farm forest. In practice, agroforestry is a land management system that is useful to overcome the problem of land availability and to increase land productivity.

Benefits of Agroforestry
Agroforestry development is carried out to provide benefits to the community. The existence of agroforestry is expected to solve various problems in terms of rural development.

Following are some of the benefits of agroforestry:
Helping the optimal use of land so as to improve the needs of people's lives
Increasing the carrying capacity of human ecology, especially in rural areas. Agroforestry can also be used to guarantee and improve food needs
Increase food supply in each season, so farmers can get additional income for their daily needs. However, to obtain these benefits, farmers must pay attention to the quality of nutrition, marketing and every process that occurs in agroforestry
Improve local energy supply, especially firewood production
Increase and improve the production of raw materials from forestry and agriculture. Generally the increase in raw material production is carried out qualitatively and diversified. In addition, it is usually done by utilizing various types of trees and shrubs
Improving the quality of life, especially in rural areas, especially in poor areas. Agroforestry can increase income and create jobs for the community
Improving the performance of productive age (young age) in rural areas so that quality of life can improve
Maintain and improve the ability and preservation of the local environment. This can be done by preventing soil erosion and environmental degradation
In addition, the presence of agroforestry also contributes to the UN's No Hunger Challenge program to end global hunger, reduce malnutrition and build sustainable food systems.

The Purpose of Agroforestry
Agroforestry has positive goals, especially for the environment. One of them is as an effort to protect biodiversity. Agroforestry systems can produce high diversity, both in terms of products and services.
In addition, agroforestry also aims to improve soil conditions and manage water sources so that they remain sustainable and better. This program is also useful as a shade tree and shade tree, as well as a living fence.

All objectives that are targeted for agroforestry will be achieved if the manager or farmer is able to carry out development techniques well.
There are several things that must be done so that the agroforestry system runs well. For example, having positive interactions between various components, including trees, agricultural crop production, and animals or livestock.
Positive interactions can also be made between the constituent components and their environment. This interaction should be carried out optimally so that agroforestry development can run well.
Agroforestry is a good technique and is the choice of farmers to improve the quality of land productivity amid limited land. In addition, this effort is also good for the environment. Because, this method can protect biodiversity, and does not cause environmental pollution.

Theologia Religionum: An Introduction

Theologia Religionum: An Introduction
Apart from that, in an academic environment, our theology also has no reference to the development of social sciences in general, so that the perspective of thinking tends to spin around itself. Here and there just as an expression which is a piece of struggle, not complete, and does not have a resonance that can stimulate people to respond.

For this reason, through this paper (Redefinition of Christianity), I would like to put forward some aspects of thinking about theology of religionum (theology of religions) and try to relate it to the problem of religious pluralism. This general introduction will not begin with a strict definition, but rather will illustrate the need to start a theological discourse. By way of describing the problems and choices we face as clearly as possible. I myself hope that the thoughts that will be offered in this paper are quite capable of providing a groundwork for a breakthrough effort to look for other possibilities of theological life that is stuffy as is happening in the life of the churches today.
Actually we need to admit, that there are quite a lot of scattered fragments, which are reflective thoughts for a moment, but have not been combined in a unified arrangement.

In such an "impasse" state, breakthrough thinking is needed that can be offered as a possible substitute. An alternative is to start a theological commitment that departs from real experience. And thus more likely to be grown into a discourse, to arrange a more complete and sustainable theological effort.

The Challenge of Pluralism, The question we want to tackle together is, what are the main challenges faced by religions today? And how these challenges have impacted religions; and how do religions respond to these challenges? What changes have occurred, and how do they affect the patterns of thought, institutions and activities of religions? How will this challenge color the future of religions and interfaith relations?

The fundamental religious challenges we face today can be revealed by one word, namely pluralism. There is no intention to say that pluralism is the only challenge, but if the challenge is not taken seriously, religions will lose the correct perception of the world and the society in which they live. Pluralism has become an essential characteristic of the world and society today. The world has become one and become a small village where humanity lives together in it. Groups of people live interconnected, interdependent of one another. The communication network has penetrated the walls that had previously isolated religious groups in society.

Pluralism is not just multiplicity of diversity, it is not only extensive, but qualitative. Today's pluralism, type, form and content are different from the pluralism we have experienced in the past. Pluralism of the past requires a response of harmony, co-existence, and harmony of life of religious groups in society. The pattern of diversity is passive, if we go to it we only experience it; however, pluralism is now very active, if we do not care about it we will be crushed.

Pluralism at the present time occurs because each group has undergone a process of emancipation in such a way, so that each part has done emancipation together, and appear together equally. No one can say that a party has no right to appear. Thus it can be said, that the kind of pluralism that currently appears together with the emancipatory awareness of every group in society. This kind of reality gives birth to new urgency to understand and respond to it in a new way.